TAFSEER OF SURATUL FAATIHA (v6-7)
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´╗┐TAFSEER OF SURATUL FAATIHA
VERSE: 6 & 7
"The Path of those whom You have favoured":
After the servant has asked and implored Allah Ta’ala for guidance to the Straight Path, in this verse, Allah Ta’ala clarifies and explains what this Straight Path is. In Suratun Nisaa (Chapter Four) this straight path is elaborated on in greater detail where Allah Ta’ala says:
"But no by Your Lord! They cannot have faith until they make you [O Muhammad] judge in all disputes between them and find in themselves no resistance to your decisions, and accept them with full submission. And if We had ordered them [saying]: ‘kill [the guilty ones amongst] yourselves or leave your homes’ very few of them would have done it. If they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them and would have strengthened their [faith]. And indeed we would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves. And indeed we would have guided them to a Straight Way. And whosoever obeys Allah and the Messenger then they will be in the company of those upon whom Allah has bestowed His favour: the Prophets, the sincerely truthful, the martyrs and the righteous. What an excellent company these are!" [Suratun Nisaa, (4), verses 65-69]
Hadrat Abdullah Bin Abbaas (R.A.) in his commentary of the above verse states that Allah Ta’ala has favoured, amongst his servants, those who He has made them obedient to Him and worship Him from the Angels, the Prophets, the sincerely truthful, the martyrs and the righteous. This is like what our Lord, the Exalted has said, "they will be in the company of those upon whom Allah has bestowed His favour: …"
Based on the above verse scholars have written:
1. The authenticity and bona-fide nature of the khilaafat of Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (RA) can be derived from this noble verse.
This is because he is included amongst those whom Allah Ta’ala has commanded us, in the Qur`aan and the Seven Oft-Repeated Verses –(Suratul-Faatihah), to ask Him that He guide us to their path thus indicating that their path is the Straight Path.
This lies in the verse, ‘guide us to the Straight Path, the Path of those whom You have favoured’ and He explained who these favoured people were and included amongst them the Siddeeqeen. [The Messenger (S.A.W.)] explained that Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was from amongst the Siddeeqeen, so it becomes clear that he is included amongst those whom Allah Ta’ala has favoured - those whom Allah Ta’ala has commanded us to ask Him to guide us to their path. Therefore there remains no doubt that Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (R.A.) was upon the Straight Path and that his khilaafat was correct and authentic. Those whose opinion is otherwise have no sound proofs for their arguments.


VERSE 7
"Not the path of those who have earned [Your] anger, nor those who have gone astray":
Al-Ghadab linguistically means anger; it is the opposite of pleasure (ridaa) and one of the Attributes of Allah. Maghdoob refer to the objects of Anger.
Commentators have written that these people who have earned that wrath and anger of Allah Ta’ala are the Jews and Christians who after the truth having come to them, they chose to not follow the straight path but opted to deviate and thus became those upon whom fell Allah Ta’ala’s wrath and displeasure.
And thus we come to the end of the tafseer of this great Surah which is regarded as the quintessence of the Qur’aan-The final revelation of Allah Ta’ala. A surah that contains just seven verses yet whose message encapsulates the message of the remainder 113 chapters of the Qur’aan that follow.
How does Surah al-Faatihah Comprise the Meaning of the Entire Qur`aan
As stated previously Suratul-Faatihah is named the Mother of the Qur`aan because it succinctly summarizes the whole of the Qur`aan. The following proves this claim.
The Surah includes affirmation of Tawheed in all of its various categories,
1. Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah, meaning unity of Allah Ta’ala’s Lordship, contained in the verse, "Lord of the Universe."
2. Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah, meaning unity of Allah Ta’ala’s worship in that all worship is to be done sincerely for His sake Alone, contained in the verse, "You Alone we worship and Your aid Alone we seek."
3. Tawheed al-Asmaa was Sifaat, meaning the unity of Allah Ta’ala’s Names and Attributes in that they are perfect and unique to Him, contained in the verse, "all praise and thanks are due to Allah."
• It teaches us to praise and glorify Allah Ta’ala by mentioning His beautiful and perfect Names and Attributes.
• It teaches us about His Mercy and His Justice.
• It teaches us about the Day of Judgement and about the recompense of our deeds.
• It teaches us that the recompense will be established upon perfect justice.
• It encourages one to perform righteous actions and dissuades one from performing sins.
• It teaches the servants of Allah Ta’ala to ask of Him Alone, to humble themselves and worship Him Alone and to put their trust and reliance in Him Alone.
• It teaches us to ask Allah Ta’ala continuously for guidance to the Straight Path.
• It points us towards the nations of the past and warns us against falling into the same acts of transgression and misguidance that they were guilty of.
• It teaches us to aspire to the company of the sincerely truthful, the martyrs and the righteous.
• It teaches that there is nothing in the Qur`aan that would give aid to or encourage innovation. Hence never will the innovator be able to find evidence for his misguidance in the Qur`aan.


Suratul Faatihah- A Duaa in reality
Scholars have written that Suratul-Faatihah is actually a prayer (Duaa) that Allah Ta’ala teaches to all who embark upon the study of His Book. Its positioning at the beginning signifies that anyone who wants to benefit from the Book should first offer this prayer to the Lord of the Universe.
Man naturally prays only for what his heart desires and prays only when he feels that the object of his desire is at the disposal of the One to Whom his prayer is addressed and answered. The placing of this Surah at the head of the Qur`aan is a sign that Allah Ta’ala urges man to read this Book with the aim of discovering the right course in life i.e. the Straight Way, to study it with the earnestness of a seeker of Truth, and never to forget that the real source of true knowledge is Allah Ta’ala Himself. The student of the Book should therefore begin by making a humble petition to Him for true guidance.
Once this is grasped, it becomes self-evident that in relation to the Qur`aan this opening Surah, is not just an introduction or foreword; the relationship is really one of prayer (Duaa) and response. Al-Faatihah is a prayer from man taught to him by Allah Ta’ala, and the rest of the Qur`aan, is Allah Ta’ala’s response to this prayer. Man prays to Allah Ta’ala that He may show him the Straight Way and in answer to this prayer Allah Ta’ala offers the Qur`aan as the true guidance, the Straight Way which man has sought and prayed for.
By the Grace of Allah Ta’ala and His limitless mercy, the end of the Tafseer of Suratul Faatihah.



 

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