The Battle of Khandaq (Moat) or Ahzab

The Battle of Khandaq (Moat) or Ahzab

Upon settling down at Khaybar, the Banu Nadhir decided to seek revenge against the Muslims. They contacted the Meccans, and 20 leaders from the Jews and 50 from the Quraish made covenant in the Ka'bah that so long as they lived, they would fight Muhammad. Then the Jews and the Quraish contacted their allies and sent emissaries to a number of tribes. Banu Ghatfan, Banu Asad, Banu Aslam, Banu Ashja', Banu Kinanah and Banu Fizarah readily responded and the coalition contributed ten thousand soldiers who marched upon Medina under the command of Abu Sufyan.
When news of these preparations reached Medina, the Holy Prophet consulted his companions. Salman al-Farsi advised to dig a moat on the unprotected side of Medina.
The Meccans camped on the outside for 27 (or 24) days. Their number increased day by day, and many Muslims were extremely terrified. At that time, many hypocrites, and even some Muslims, asked permission to leave the rank of the Muslims and to return to their homes: The bulk of the army, however, steadfastly bore up the hardship of inclement weather and rapidly depleting provisions. The coalition's army hurled arrows and stones at the Muslims.
The Holy Prophet went to the place where the Mosque of Victory (Masjid-ul-Fath) now stands and prayed to Allah. A fierce storm raged which uprooted the tents of the enemies; their pots and belongings went flying in all directions; an unbearable terror was cast in their ranks. The Meccans and the pagan tribes fled away.  


The Fall of Mecca

One of the conditions of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah was that the Quraish would not fight against any ally of the Muslims, nor should the Muslims fight against any ally of the Quraish. In simple language, the clause of 10-years' cease-fire included the allies as well as the principals.
During the month of Ramadhan of 8 A.H., the Banu Khuza'ah, an ally of the Muslims, were attacked by Banu Bakr and their allies, the Quraish. By virtue of their alliance with the Muslims, the Banu Khuza'ah sought the aid and protection of the Prophet. The Prophet sent an emissary to the Quraish to persuade them to accept any of the following terms:
Reparations should be paid for the massacred people of Banu Khuza'ah, or The Quraish should break their alliance with Banu Bakr, or The treaty of Hudaibiyah should be abrogated.
The Quraish accepted the last alternative. The time had come to free the citadel of Islam from idolatry and to end the reign of oppression in Mecca. The Prophet (saw) marched with ten thousand men on the 10th of the month of Ramadhan and camped a short distance from Mecca. Apart from a slight resistance offered by 'Ikrimah and Safwan, Muhammad (saw) entered Mecca almost unopposed. It happened on a Friday, the 20th of the month of Ramadhan, 8 A.H.
The city which had scoffed and jeered at Muhammad's prophetic mission, ruthlessly persecuted him and his disciples and ultimately driven his disciples away, had created all manner of obstacles in the propagation of the faith and had waged war upon war on the Muslims. This same city now lay at his feet. At this moment of triumph, he could have done anything he wished with the city and the citizens, but he had not come to the world to cause misery or bloodshed but as a benefactor of mankind, to proclaim the message of God and to guide erring humanity to the righteous course: to the worship of the One and Only God.



List of Battles & Expeditions





Notable primary sources


Invasion of Waddan

August 623 [1][2]


Invasion of Buwat

October 623 [4][5]


Invasion of Dul Ashir

December 623 


Invasion of Safwan



Battle of Badr

March 624 


Invasion of Sawiq



Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa

February 624 


Al Kudr Invasion

May 624 


Invasion of Thi Amr

September 624 


Invasion of Bahran



Battle of Uhud

March 23 625 


Invasion of Hamra al-Asad

March 625


Invasion of Banu Nadir

August 625 


Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa

October 625 or 627


Invasion of Badr

January 626 or March 625


Invasion of Dumatul Jandal

July 626 


Battle of the Trench

February 627 


Invasion of Banu Qurayza

February–March 627 


Invasion of Banu Lahyan

September 627 


Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

March 628 


Conquest of Fidak

May 628 


Battle of Khaybar

May/June 628 


Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura

May 628 


Conquest of Mecca

December 629 


Battle of Hunayn

January 630 


Battle of Autas



Siege of Ta'if

January 630 


Battle of Tabouk

October 630 


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